Neuroscience majorly covers two broad areas, the Brain and the rest of the neurological pathways. The brain study can be separated into two sub-domains. One is overall mental and cognitive health, including memory, perception, and voluntary movements. The other domain deals with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). NDs are generally characterised by uncontrolled neuronal death leading to a gradual decline in brain functions. The NDs affect tens of millions of people worldwide and have become a major concern of public health. The Department of Neurosciences at I3TK mainly focuses on neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders like Autism. Unfortunately, to date, no biomarker approaches and/or effective therapeutic interventions have yet translated into regular clinical practice for neurodegenerative disorders. Modern technological advances in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics offer many crucial insights into the disease mechanism, as well as opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that can reverse and/or halt neurodegeneration. In spite of these latest developments, there are still significant gaps in connecting genetic information and/or environmental factors with disease mechanisms and in harnessing the critical role of intercellular interactions to develop effective therapeutic interventions. Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that comprises cellular and molecular biology, physiology, and pharmacology, as well as behavioural and cognitive neuroscience.